RARE Orig Cabinet Photo Native American Sitting Bull’s Son 1880 Goff Dakota

RARE-Orig-Cabinet-Photo-Native-American-Sitting-Bull-s-Son-1880-Goff-Dakota-01-bel RARE Orig Cabinet Photo Native American Sitting Bull's Son 1880 Goff Dakota
RARE Orig Cabinet Photo Native American Sitting Bull's Son 1880 Goff Dakota

RARE Orig Cabinet Photo Native American Sitting Bull's Son 1880 Goff Dakota
RARE Original Cabinet Card Photograph. Sitting Bull’s Son. For offer – a very interesting photo! Fresh from an estate. Never offered on the market until now. Vintage, Old, antique, Original – NOT a Reproduction – Guaranteed! Seated in full war bonnet / head dress holding pistol revolver. Identified in ink at lower margin. Photographer imprint of Goff, Bismarch / Bismark Dakota on back. In good to very good condition. Light wear at edges; Light age toning. If you collect photography, 19th century era American history, Americana, Culture / ethnicity, signatures, etc. This is a nice one for your paper or ephemera collection. Sitting Bull Lakota: Tatáka Íyotake tatka i. 1831 December 15, 1890[3] was a Hunkpapa Lakota leader who led his people during years of resistance against United States government policies. He was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him, at a time when authorities feared that he would join the Ghost Dance movement. Before the Battle of the Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull had a vision in which he saw many soldiers, “as thick as grasshoppers, ” falling upside down into the Lakota camp, which his people took as a foreshadowing of a major victory in which many soldiers would be killed. [5] About three weeks later, the confederated Lakota tribes with the Northern Cheyenne defeated the 7th Cavalry under Lt. George Armstrong Custer on June 25, 1876, annihilating Custer’s battalion and seeming to bear out Sitting Bull’s prophetic vision. Sitting Bull’s leadership inspired his people to a major victory. In response, the U. Government sent thousands more soldiers to the area, forcing many of the Lakota to surrender over the next year. Sitting Bull refused to surrender, and in May 1877, he led his band north to Wood Mountain, North-Western Territory (now Saskatchewan). Territory and surrendered to U. Due to fears that he would use his influence to support the Ghost Dance movement, Indian Service agent James McLaughlin at Fort Yates ordered his arrest. During an ensuing struggle between Sitting Bull’s followers and the agency police, Sitting Bull was shot in the side and head by Standing Rock policemen Lieutenant Bull Head (Tatankapah, Lakota: Tatáka Pá) and Red Tomahawk (Marcelus Chankpidutah, Lakota: hapí Dúta), after the police were fired upon by Sitting Bull’s supporters. His body was taken to nearby Fort Yates for burial. In 1953, his Lakota family exhumed what were believed to be his remains, reburying them near Mobridge, South Dakota, near his birthplace. Sitting Bull was born on land later included in the Dakota Territory. [6][7] In 2007, Sitting Bull’s great-grandson asserted from family oral tradition that Sitting Bull was born along the Yellowstone River, south of present-day Miles City, Montana. [8] He was named Jumping Badger at birth, and nicknamed Húkeni [hkni] or “Slow” said to describe his careful and unhurried nature. [9] When he was fourteen years old he accompanied a group of Lakota warriors (which included his father and his uncle Four Horns) in a raiding party to take horses from a camp of Crow warriors. He displayed bravery by riding forward and counting coup on one of the surprised Crow, which was witnessed by the other mounted Lakota. Upon returning to camp his father gave a celebratory feast at which he conferred his own name upon his son. The name, Tatáka Íyotake, which in the Lakota language approximately means “buffalo who set himself to watch over the herd”, was simplified as “Sitting Bull”. [10] Thereafter, Sitting Bull’s father was known as Jumping Bull. At this ceremony before the entire band, Sitting Bull’s father presented his son with an eagle feather to wear in his hair, a warrior’s horse, and a hardened buffalo hide shield to mark his son’s passage into manhood as a Lakota warrior. During the Dakota War of 1862, in which Sitting Bull’s people were not involved, [6] several bands of eastern Dakota people killed an estimated 300 to 800 settlers and soldiers in south-central Minnesota in response to poor treatment by the government and in an effort to drive the whites away. Despite being embroiled in the American Civil War, the United States Army retaliated in 1863 and 1864, even against bands which had not been involved in the hostilities. [11] In 1864, two brigades of about 2200 soldiers under Brigadier General Alfred Sully attacked a village. The defenders were led by Sitting Bull, Gall and Inkpaduta. [11] The Lakota and Dakota were driven out, but skirmishing continued into August at the Battle of the Badlands. In September, Sitting Bull and about one hundred Hunkpapa Lakota encountered a small party near what is now Marmarth, North Dakota. They had been left behind by a wagon train commanded by Captain James L. Fisk to effect some repairs to an overturned wagon. When he led an attack, Sitting Bull was shot in the left hip by a soldier. [11] The bullet exited out through the small of his back, and the wound was not serious. Red Cloud’s War. From 1866 to 1868, Red Cloud as a leader of the Oglala Lakota fought against U. Forces, attacking their forts in an effort to keep control of the Powder River Country of Montana. In support of him, Sitting Bull led numerous war parties against Fort Berthold, Fort Stevenson, and Fort Buford and their environs from 1865 through 1868. [15] The uprising has come to be known as Red Cloud’s War. By early 1868, the U. Government desired a peaceful settlement to the conflict. It agreed to Red Cloud’s demands that the U. Abandon forts Phil Kearny and C. Gall of the Hunkpapa (among other representatives of the Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, and Yankton Dakota) signed a form of the Treaty of Fort Laramie on July 2, 1868 at Fort Rice (near Bismarck, North Dakota). [16] Sitting Bull did not agree to the treaty. He told the Jesuit missionary, Pierre Jean De Smet, who sought him out on behalf of the government: I wish all to know that I do not propose to sell any part of my country. [17] He continued his hit-and-run attacks on forts in the upper Missouri area throughout the late 1860s and early 1870s. The events of 18661868 mark a historically debated period of Sitting Bull’s life. According to historian Stanley Vestal, who conducted interviews with surviving Hunkpapa in 1930, Sitting Bull was made “Supreme Chief of the whole Sioux Nation” at this time. Later historians and ethnologists have refuted this concept of authority, as the Lakota society was highly decentralized. Lakota bands and their elders made individual decisions, including whether to wage war. Great Sioux War of 1876. Further information: Great Sioux War of 1876. Early Cabinet card of Sitting Bull, 1881. Sitting Bull’s band of Hunkpapa continued to attack migrating parties and forts in the late 1860s. When in 1871 the Northern Pacific Railway conducted a survey for a route across the northern plains directly through Hunkpapa lands, it encountered stiff Lakota resistance. Sitting Bull and the Hunkpapa attacked the survey party, which was forced to turn back. [21] In 1873, the military accompaniment for the surveyors was increased again, but Sitting Bull’s forces resisted the survey most vigorously. [22] The Panic of 1873 forced the Northern Pacific Railway’s backers (such as Jay Cooke) into bankruptcy. This halted construction of the railroad through Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota territory. After the 1848 discovery of gold in the Sierra Nevada and dramatic gains in new wealth from it, other men became interested in the potential for gold mining in the Black Hills. George Armstrong Custer led a military expedition from Fort Abraham Lincoln near Bismarck to explore the Black Hills for gold and to determine a suitable location for a military fort in the Hills. [24] Custer’s announcement of gold in the Black Hills triggered the Black Hills Gold Rush. Tensions increased between the Lakota and European Americans seeking to move into the Black Hills. Although Sitting Bull did not attack Custer’s expedition in 1874, the U. Government was increasingly pressured by citizens to open the Black Hills to mining and settlement. [26] It was alarmed at reports of Sioux depredations, some of which were encouraged by Sitting Bull. In November 1875, President Grant ordered all Sioux bands outside the Great Sioux Reservation to move onto the reservation, knowing full well that not all would comply. As of February 1, 1876, the Interior Department certified as “hostile” those bands who continued to live off the reservation. [27] This certification allowed the military to pursue Sitting Bull and other Lakota bands as “hostiles”. Based on tribal oral histories, historian Margot Liberty theorizes that many Lakota bands allied with the Cheyenne during the Plains Wars because they thought the other nation was under attack by the U. Given this connection, she suggests the major war should have been called “The Great Cheyenne War”. Since 1860, the Northern Cheyenne had led several battles among the Plains Indians. Before 1876, the U. Army had destroyed seven Cheyenne camps, more than those of any other nation. Other historians, such as Robert M. Utley and Jerome Greene, also use Lakota oral testimony, but they have concluded that the Lakota coalition, of which Sitting Bull was the ostensible head, was the primary target of the federal government’s pacification campaign. Battle of the Little Bighorn. Further information: Battle of the Little Bighorn. The area in which the Battle of the Little Bighorn took place. During the period 18681876, Sitting Bull developed into one of the most important of Native American political leaders. After the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) and the creation of the Great Sioux Reservation, many traditional Sioux warriors, such as Red Cloud of the Oglala and Spotted Tail of the Brulé, moved to reside permanently on the reservations. They were largely dependent for subsistence on the U. Many other chiefs, including members of Sitting Bull’s Hunkpapa band such as Gall, at times lived temporarily at the agencies. They needed the supplies at a time when white encroachment and the depletion of buffalo herds reduced their resources and challenged Native American independence. In 1875, the Northern Cheyenne, Hunkpapa, Oglala, Sans Arc, and Minneconjou camped together for a Sun Dance, with both the Cheyenne medicine man White Bull or Ice and Sitting Bull in association. This ceremonial alliance preceded their fighting together in 1876. [30] Sitting Bull had a major revelation. At the climactic moment, Sitting Bull intoned,’The Great Spirit has given our enemies to us. We are to destroy them. We do not know who they are. They may be soldiers. Ice too observed,’No one then knew who the enemy were of what tribe. They were soon to find out. Sitting Bull’s refusal to adopt any dependence on the U. Government meant that at times he and his small band of warriors lived isolated on the Plains. When Native Americans were threatened by the United States, numerous members from various Sioux bands and other tribes, such as the Northern Cheyenne, came to Sitting Bull’s camp. His reputation for “strong medicine” developed as he continued to evade the European Americans. Sketch of Sitting Bull; Harper’s Weekly, December 8, 1877 issue. After the ultimatum on January 1, 1876, when the U. Army began to track down as hostiles those Sioux and others living off the reservation, Native Americans gathered at Sitting Bull’s camp. He took an active role in encouraging this “unity camp”. He sent scouts to the reservations to recruit warriors and told the Hunkpapa to share supplies with those Native Americans who joined them. An example of his generosity was Sitting Bull’s provision for Wooden Leg’s Northern Cheyenne tribe. They had been impoverished by Captain Reynold’s March 17, 1876 attack and fled to Sitting Bull’s camp for safety. Over the course of the first half of 1876, Sitting Bull’s camp continually expanded as natives joined him for safety in numbers. His leadership had attracted warriors and families, creating an extensive village estimated at more than 10,000 people. Custer came across this large camp on June 25, 1876. Sitting Bull did not take a direct military role in the ensuing battle; instead he acted as a spiritual leader. A week prior to the attack, he had performed the Sun Dance, in which he fasted and sacrificed over 100 pieces of flesh from his arms. Custer’s 7th Cavalry, divided into three battalions, attacked Cheyenne and Lakota tribes at their camp on the Little Big Horn River (known as the Greasy Grass River to the Lakota) on June 25, 1876. Custer and his officers did not realize how large the camp was. More than 2,000 Native American warriors had left their reservations to follow Sitting Bull. Inspired by Sitting Bull’s vision of U. Soldiers being killed as they entered the tribe’s camp, the Cheyenne and Lakota fought back. The 7th Cavalry’s badly outnumbered troops lost ground quickly on two fronts and were forced to retreat. The tribes led a counter-attack against Custer’s wing on a nearby ridge, ultimately annihilating them[34] and surrounding and laying siege to the other two battalions led by Reno and Benteen. The Native Americans’ victory celebrations were short-lived. Public shock and outrage at Custer’s defeat and death, as well as the government’s understanding of the military capability of the remaining Sioux, led the War Department to assign thousands more soldiers to the area. Over the next year, the new American military forces pursued the Lakota, forcing many of the Native Americans to surrender. Sitting Bull refused to do so and in May 1877 led his band across the border into the North-West Territories, Canada. He remained in exile for four years near Wood Mountain, refusing a pardon and the chance to return. [35] When crossing the border into Canadian territory, Sitting Bull was met by the Mounties of the region. During this meeting, James Morrow Walsh, commander of the North-West Mounted Police, explained to Sitting Bull that the Lakota were now on British soil and must obey British law. Walsh emphasized that he enforced the law equally and that every person in the territory had a right to justice. Walsh became an advocate for Sitting Bull and the two became good friends for the remainder of their lives. While in Canada, Sitting Bull also met with Crowfoot, who was a leader of the Blackfeet, long-time powerful enemies of the Lakota and Cheyenne. Sitting Bull wished to make peace with the Blackfeet Nation and Crowfoot. As an advocate for peace himself, Crowfoot eagerly accepted the tobacco peace offering. Sitting Bull was so impressed by Crowfoot that he named one of his sons after him. [37] Sitting Bull and his people stayed in Canada for four years. Due to the smaller size of the buffalo herds in Canada, Sitting Bull and his men found it difficult to find enough food to feed his starving people. Sitting Bull’s presence in the country led to increased tensions between the Canadian and the United States governments. [38] Before Sitting Bull left Canada, he may have visited Walsh for a final time and left a ceremonial headdress as a memento. Fort Buford’s original 1872 Commanding Officer’s Quarters where Sitting Bull’s surrender ceremony was held. Sitting Bull and family 1881 at Ft Randall rear LR Good Feather Woman (sister), Walks Looking (daughter) front LR Her Holy Door (mother), Sitting Bull, Many Horses (daughter) with her son, Courting a Woman. Hunger and desperation eventually forced Sitting Bull and 186 of his family and followers to return to the United States and surrender on July 19, 1881. Sitting Bull had his young son Crow Foot surrender his Winchester lever-action carbine to Major David H. Brotherton, commanding officer of Fort Buford. Sitting Bull said to Brotherton, “I wish it to be remembered that I was the last man of my tribe to surrender my rifle”. [6] In the parlor of the Commanding Officer’s Quarters in a ceremony the next day, he told the four soldiers, 20 warriors and other guests in the small room that he wished to regard the soldiers and the white race as friends but he wanted to know who would teach his son the new ways of the world. Two weeks later, after waiting in vain for other members of his tribe to follow him from Canada, Sitting Bull and his band were transferred to Fort Yates, the military post located adjacent to the Standing Rock Agency. This reservation straddles the present-day boundary between North and South Dakota. Sitting Bull and his band of 186 people were kept separate from the other Hunkpapa gathered at the agency. Army officials were concerned that he would stir up trouble among the recently surrendered northern bands. On August 26, 1881, he was visited by census taker William T. Selwyn, who counted twelve people in the Hunkpapa leader’s immediate family. Forty-one families, totaling 195 people, were recorded in Sitting Bull’s band. The military decided to transfer Sitting Bull and his band to Fort Randall to be held as prisoners of war. Loaded onto a steamboat, the band of 172 people was sent down the Missouri River to Fort Randall (near present-day Pickstown, South Dakota) on the southern border of the state. There they spent the next 20 months. They were allowed to return north to the Standing Rock Agency in May 1883. In 1883, rumors were reported that Sitting Bull had been baptized into the Catholic Church. James McLaughlin, Indian agent at Standing Rock Agency, dismissed these reports, saying that The reported baptism of Sitting-Bull is erroneous. In 1884 show promoter Alvaren Allen asked Agent James McLaughlin to allow Sitting Bull to tour parts of Canada and the northern United States. The show was called the Sitting Bull Connection. It was during this tour that Sitting Bull met Annie Oakley in Minnesota. [46] The admiration and respect was mutual. Oakley stated that Sitting Bull made a “great pet” of her. [46] In observing Oakley, Sitting Bull’s respect for the young sharpshooter grew. Oakley was quite modest in her attire, deeply respectful of others, and had a remarkable stage persona despite being a woman who stood only five feet in height. Sitting Bull felt that she was “gifted” by supernatural means in order to shoot so accurately with both hands. As a result of his esteem, he symbolically “adopted” her as a daughter in 1884. He named her “Little Sure Shot” a name that Oakley used throughout her career. In 1885, Sitting Bull was allowed to leave the reservation to go Wild Westing with Buffalo Bill Cody’s Buffalo Bill’s Wild West. Although it is rumored that he cursed his audiences in his native tongue during the show, the historian Utley contends that he did not. [48] Historians have reported that Sitting Bull gave speeches about his desire for education for the young, and reconciling relations between the Sioux and whites. The historian Edward Lazarus wrote that Sitting Bull reportedly cursed his audience in Lakota in 1884, during an opening address celebrating the completion of the Northern Pacific Railway. [50] According to Michael Hiltzik, … Sitting Bull declared in Lakota,’I hate all White people. You are thieves and liars. You have taken away our land and made us outcasts. The translator, however, read the original address which had been written as a’gracious act of amity’, and the audience, including President Grant was left none the wiser. Sitting Bull stayed with the show for four months before returning home. During that time, audiences considered him a celebrity and romanticized him as a warrior. Tension between Sitting Bull and Agent McLaughlin increased and each became more wary of the other over several issues including division and sale of parts of the Great Sioux Reservation. [53] During that period, in 1889 Indian Rights Activist Caroline Weldon from Brooklyn, New York, a member of the National Indian Defense Association “NIDA”, reached out to Sitting Bull, acting to be his voice, secretary, interpreter and advocate. She joined him, together with her young son Christy at his compound on the Grand River, sharing with him and his family home and hearth. [54] In 1889, during a time of harsh winters and long droughts impacting the Sioux Reservation, a Paiute Indian named Wovoka spread a religious movement from Nevada eastward to the Plains that preached a resurrection of the Native. It was known as the “Ghost Dance Movement” because it called on the Indians to dance and chant for the rising up of deceased relatives and return of the buffalo. The dance included shirts that were said to stop bullets. When the movement reached Standing Rock, Sitting Bull allowed the dancers to gather at his camp. Although he did not appear to participate in the dancing, he was viewed as a key instigator. Alarm spread to nearby white settlements. Capture & Death of Sitting Bull. “Wild scene”, “Squaws death chant heard in every direction, ” telegram sent after killing of Sitting Bull. Monument at Sitting Bull’s grave, Mobridge, South Dakota, 2003. In 1890, James McLaughlin, the U. Indian Agent at Fort Yates on Standing Rock Agency, feared that the Lakota leader was about to flee the reservation with the Ghost Dancers, so he ordered the police to arrest him. [56] On December 14, 1890, McLaughlin drafted a letter to Lieutenant Henry Bullhead (noted as Bull Head in lead), an Indian agency policeman, that included instructions and a plan to capture Sitting Bull. The plan called for the arrest to take place at dawn on December 15, and advised the use of a light spring wagon to facilitate removal before his followers could rally. Bullhead decided against using the wagon. He intended to have the police officers force Sitting Bull to mount a horse immediately after the arrest. [54][57][58][59][60]. Around 5:30 a. On December 15, 39 police officers and four volunteers approached Sitting Bull’s house. They surrounded the house, knocked and entered. Bullhead told Sitting Bull that he was under arrest and led him outside. [61] Sitting Bull and his wife noisily stalled for time: the camp awakened and men converged at the house. As Bullhead ordered Sitting Bull to mount a horse, he said the Indian Affairs agent wanted to see the chief, and then Sitting Bull could return to his house. When Sitting Bull refused to comply, the police used force on him. The Sioux in the village were enraged. Catch-the-Bear, a Lakota, shouldered his rifle and shot Bullhead, who reacted by firing his revolver into the chest of Sitting Bull. [62] Another police officer, Red Tomahawk, shot Sitting Bull in the head, and Sitting Bull dropped to the ground. Sitting Bull died between 12 and 1 p. A close-quarters fight erupted, and within minutes, several men were dead. The Lakota killed six policemen immediately, while two more died shortly after the fight, including Bullhead. The police killed Sitting Bull and seven of his supporters at the site, along with two horses. Sitting Bull’s grave at Fort Yates, c. Sitting Bull’s body was taken to Fort Yates, where it was placed in a coffin (made by the Army carpenter)[64] and buried. A monument was installed to mark his burial site after his remains were reportedly taken to South Dakota. In 1953, Lakota family members exhumed what they believed to be Sitting Bull’s remains, transporting them for reinterment near Mobridge, South Dakota, his birthplace. [65][66] A monument to him was erected there. Following Sitting Bull’s death, his cabin on the Grand River was taken to Chicago for use as an exhibit at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition. Native American dancers also performed at the Exposition. On March 6, 1996, Standing Rock College was renamed Sitting Bull College in his honor. Sitting Bull College serves as an institution of higher education on Sitting Bull’s home of Standing Rock in North Dakota and South Dakota. The American historian Gary Clayton Anderson of the University of Oklahoma published Sitting Bull and the Paradox of Lakota Nationhood (2010), a revisionist examination of the Lakota medicine man. Anderson stresses the Little Big Horn in light of past successes of the Lakota Nation and the merits of Sitting Bull himself, rather than simply a mishap by Custer. In August 2010, a research team led by Eske Willerslev, an ancient DNA expert at the University of Copenhagen, announced their intention to sequence the genome of Sitting Bull, with the approval of his descendants, using a hair sample obtained during his lifetime. Representation in popular culture. Sitting Bull was the subject of, or a featured character in, several Hollywood motion pictures and documentaries, which have reflected changing ideas about him and Lakota culture in relation to the United States. Sitting Bull: The Hostile Sioux Indian Chief (1914)[72]. Sitting Bull at the Spirit Lake Massacre (1927), with Chief Yowlachie in the title role[73]. Annie Oakley (1935), where he is played by Chief Thunderbird[74]. Annie Get Your Gun (1950), where he is played by J. Sitting Bull (1954), with J. Carrol Naish again in the title role[76]. Cheyenne (1957), with Frank DeKova as Sitting Bull[77]. Buffalo Bill and the Indians, or Sitting Bull’s History Lesson (1976), where he is played by Frank Kaquitts[78]. Buffalo Girls (1995 miniseries), where he is played by Russell Means[79]. Into the West (2005 miniseries), where he is portrayed by Eric Schweig[80]. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (2007), where he is portrayed by August Schellenberg[81]. Sitting Bull: A Stone in My Heart (2008) Documentary[82]. Woman Walks Ahead (2017), where he is played by Michael Greyeyes[83]. As time passed, Sitting Bull has become a symbol and archetype of Native American resistance movements as well as a figure celebrated by descendants of his former enemies. Legoland Billund, the first Legoland park, contains a 36-foot tall Lego sculpture of Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull is featured as the leader for the Native American Civilization in the computer game Civilization IV. Sitting Bull is listed as one of 13 great Americans in President Barack Obama’s children’s book, Of Thee I Sing: A Letter to My Daughters. The Lakota (pronounced [lakota]; Lakota: Lakóta/Lakhóta) are a Native American tribe. Also known as the Teton Sioux (from Thítuwa), [7] they are one of the three prominent subcultures of the Sioux people. Their current lands are in North and South Dakota. They speak Lakótiyapithe Lakota language, the westernmost of three closely related languages that belong to the Siouan language family. The seven bands or “sub-tribes” of the Lakota are. Siháu (Brulé, Burned Thighs)[8]. Oglála (“They Scatter Their Own”)[8]. Itázipho (Sans Arc, Without Bows)[8]. Húkpapa (Hunkpapa, “End Village”, [8] Camps at the End of the Camp Circle). Mnikówou (Miniconjou, “Plant Near Water”, [8] Planters by the Water). Sihásapa (“Blackfeet or Blackfoot”)[8]. Oóhenupa (Two Kettles)[8]. Notable Lakota persons include Tatáka Íyotake (Sitting Bull) from the Húnkpapa band; Touch the Clouds from the Miniconjou band, Heáka Sápa (Black Elk) from the Oglála band, Mapíya Lúta (Red Cloud), Billy Mills, Taúke Witkó (Crazy Horse) from the Oglala and Miniconjou bands, and Sité Gleká (Spotted Tail) from the Brulé’s. Scenes of battle and horse raiding decorate a muslin Lakota tipi from the late 19th or early 20th century. Siouan language speakers may have originated in the lower Mississippi River region and then migrated to or originated in the Ohio Valley. They were agriculturalists and may have been part of the Mound Builder civilization during the 9th12th centuries CE. [9] Lakota legend and other sources state they originally lived near the Great Lakes: The tribes of the Dakota before European contact in the 1600 lived in the region around Lake Superior. In this forest environment, they lived by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild rice. They also grew some corn, but their locale was near the limit of where corn could be grown. This may be conflation with the Algonquian groups typically in that region, though Siouan peoples probably migrated there later. [10] In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Dakota-Lakota speakers lived in the upper Mississippi Region in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and the Dakotas. Conflicts with Anishnaabe and Cree peoples pushed the Lakota west onto the Great Plains in the mid- to late-17th century. Early Lakota history is recorded in their winter counts (Lakota: waníyetu wówapi), pictorial calendars painted on hides, or later recorded on paper. The Battiste Good winter count records Lakota history back to 900 CE when White Buffalo Calf Woman gave the Lakota people the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Around 1730, Cheyenne people introduced the Lakota to horses, [12] called ukawaka (“dog [of] power/mystery/wonder”). After they adopted horse culture, Lakota society centered on the buffalo hunt on horseback. The total population of the Sioux (Lakota, Santee, Yankton, and Yanktonai) was estimated at 28,000 by French explorers in 1660. The Lakota population was first estimated at 8,500 in 1805, growing steadily and reaching 16,110 in 1881. Thus, the Lakota were one of the few Native American tribes to increase in population in the 19th century. The number of Lakota has now expanded to more than 170,000, [13] of whom about 2,000 still speak the Lakota language (Lakótiyapi). After 1720, the Lakota branch of the Seven Council Fires split into two major sects, the Saône, who moved to the Lake Traverse area on the South DakotaNorth DakotaMinnesota border, and the Oglála-Siháu who occupied the James River valley. However, by about 1750 the Saône had moved to the east bank of the Missouri River, followed 10 years later by the Oglála and Brulé (Siháu). The large and powerful Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa villages had long prevented the Lakota from crossing Missouri. However, the great smallpox epidemic of 17721780 destroyed three-quarters of these tribes. The Lakota crossed the river into the drier, short-grass prairies of the High Plains. These newcomers were the Saône, well-mounted and increasingly confident, who spread out quickly. In 1765, a Saône exploring and raiding party led by Chief Standing Bear discovered the Black Hills (the Paha Sapa), then the territory of the Cheyenne. [15] Ten years later, the Oglála and Brulé also crossed the river. The Cheyenne then moved west to the Powder River country, [12] and the Lakota made the Black Hills their home. Indian peace commissioners in council with the Northern Cheyenne and Northern Arapaho, Fort Laramie, Wyoming. Initial United States contact with the Lakota during the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 18041806 was marked by a standoff. Lakota bands refused to allow the explorers to continue upstream, and the expedition prepared for battle, which never came. Some bands of Lakotas became the first Indians to help the United States Army in an Indian war west of the Missouri during the Arikara War in 1823. In 1843, the southern Lakotas attacked Pawnee Chief Blue Coat’s village near the Loup in Nebraska, killing many and burning half of the earth lodges. [18] Next time the Lakotas inflicted a blow so severe on the Pawnee would be in 1873, during the Massacre Canyon battle near Republican River. Lakota 1851 treaty territory (Area 408, 516, 584, 597, 598 and 632). Nearly half a century later, after Fort Laramie had been built without permission on Lakota land, the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was negotiated to protect travelers on the Oregon Trail. The Cheyenne and Lakota had previously attacked emigrant parties in a competition for resources, and also because some settlers had encroached on their lands. The United States government did not enforce the treaty restriction against unauthorized settlement. Lakota and other bands attacked settlers and even emigrant trains, causing public pressure on the U. Army to punish the hostiles. On September 3, 1855, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenged the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Lakota village in Nebraska, killing about 100 men, women, and children. A series of short “wars” followed, and in 18621864, as refugees from the “Dakota War of 1862″ in Minnesota fled west to their allies in Montana and Dakota Territory. Increasing illegal settlement after the American Civil War caused war once again. The Black Hills were considered sacred by the Lakota, and they objected to mining. Between 1866 and 1868 the U. Army fought the Lakota and their allies along the Bozeman Trail over U. Forts built to protect miners traveling along the trail. Oglala Chief Red Cloud led his people to victory in Red Cloud’s War. In 1868, the United States signed the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, exempting the Black Hills from all white settlement forever. Four years later gold was discovered there, and prospectors descended on the area. The attacks on settlers and miners were met by military force conducted by army commanders such as Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer. General Philip Sheridan encouraged his troops to hunt and kill the buffalo as a means of destroying the Indians’ commissary. The allied Lakota and Arapaho bands and the unified Northern Cheyenne were involved in much of the warfare after 1860. They fought a successful delaying action against General George Crook’s army at the Battle of the Rosebud, preventing Crook from locating and attacking their camp, and a week later defeated the U. 7th Cavalry in 1876 at the Battle of the Greasy Grass in the Crow Indian Reservation of 1868. [22] Custer attacked a camp of several tribes, much larger than he realized. Their combined forces, led by Chief Crazy Horse killed 258 soldiers, wiping out the entire Custer battalion in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and inflicting more than 50% casualties on the regiment. Their victory over the U. Army would not last, however. Congress authorized funds to expand the army by 2,500 men. The reinforced US Army defeated the Lakota bands in a series of battles, finally ending the Great Sioux War in 1877. The Lakota were eventually confined onto reservations, prevented from hunting buffalo and forced to accept government food distribution. January 17, 1891: Young Man Afraid of His Horses at Camp of Oglala tribe of Lakota at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, 3 weeks after Wounded Knee Massacre, when 150 scattered as 153 Lakota Sioux and 25 U. Oglala Sioux tribal flag. In 1877, some of the Lakota bands signed a treaty that ceded the Black Hills to the United States; however, the nature of this treaty and its passage were controversial. The number of Lakota leaders that actually backed the treaty is highly disputed. Low-intensity conflicts continued in the Black Hills. Fourteen years later, Sitting Bull was killed at Standing Rock reservation on December 15, 1890. Army attacked Spotted Elk (aka Bigfoot), Mnicoujou band of Lakota at the Wounded Knee Massacre on December 29, 1890, at Pine Ridge. Today, the Lakota are found mostly in the five reservations of western South Dakota. Rosebud Indian Reservation, home of the Upper Sihánu or Brulé. Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, home of the Oglála. Lower Brule Indian Reservation, home of the Lower Sihau. Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, home of several other of the seven Lakota bands, including the Mnikówou, Itázipho, Sihásapa, and Oóhenumpa. Standing Rock Indian Reservation, home of the Húkpapa and to people from many other bands. Lakota also live on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in northeastern Montana, the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation of northwestern North Dakota, and several small reserves in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Their ancestors fled to Grandmother’s i. Queen Victoria’s Land (Canada) during the Minnesota or Black Hills War. Large numbers of Lakota live in Rapid City and other towns in the Black Hills, and in metro Denver. Lakota elders joined the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) to seek protection and recognition for their cultural and land rights. Legally[23] and by treaty a semi-autonomous “nation” within the United States, the Lakota Sioux are represented locally by officials elected to councils for the several reservations and communities in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska. They are represented on the state and national level by the elected officials from the political districts of their respective states and Congressional Districts. [24] Band or reservation members living both on and off the individual reservations are eligible to vote in periodic elections for that reservation. Each reservation has a unique local government style and election cycle based on its own constitution[25][26] or articles of incorporation. Most follow a multi-member tribal council model with a chairman or president elected directly by the voters. The current President of the Oglala Sioux, the majority tribe of the Lakota located primarily on the Pine Ridge reservation, is Julian Bear Runner. The President of the Siháu Lakota at the Rosebud reservation is William Kindle. The Chairman of the Standing Rock reservation, which includes peoples from several Lakota subgroups including the Húkpapa, is Mike Faith. The Chairman of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe at the Cheyenne River reservation, comprising the Mnikówou, Itázipho, Sihá Sápa, and Oóhenupa bands of the Lakota, is Kevin Keckler. The Chairman of the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe, which is home to the Lower Sicangu Lakota, is Boyd I. Tribal governments have significant leeway, as semi-autonomous political entities, in deviating from state law e. They are ultimately subject to supervisory oversight by the United States Congress[23] and executive regulation through the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The nature and legitimacy of those relationships continue to be a matter of dispute. There are nine bands of Dakota and Lakota in Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan, with a total of 6,000 registered members. They are recognized as First Nations but are not considered “treaty Indians”. As First Nations they receive rights and entitlements through the Indian and Northern Affairs Canada department. However, as they are not recognized as treaty Indians, they did not participate in the land settlement and natural resource revenues. See also: Republic of Lakotah proposal. Mildred “Midge” Wagner, a Lakota woman, singing at a pow wow in 2015. There have been numerous actions, occupations, and proposed independence movements, led by a variety of individuals and coalitions. In 1980, the Supreme Court decided in United States v. In September 2007, the United Nations passed a non-binding Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Canada, [32] the United States, Australia and New Zealand refused to sign. On December 20, 2007, a small group of people led by American Indian Movement activist Russell Means, under the name Lakota Freedom Delegation, traveled to Washington D. To announce a withdrawal of the Lakota Sioux from all treaties with the United States government. [34] These activists had no standing under any elected tribal government, and Lakota tribal leaders issued public responses to the effect that, in the words of Rosebud Lakota tribal chairman Rodney Bordeaux, We do not support what Means and his group are doing and they don’t have any support from any tribal government I know of. They don’t speak for us. Means then declared “The Republic of Lakotah” a sovereign nation with property rights over thousands of square miles in South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming and Montana. [37] The group stated that they do not act for or represent the tribal governments “set up by the BIA or those Lakota who support the BIA system of government”. “The Lakota Freedom Delegation” did not include any elected leaders from any of the tribes. [35][36] Russell Means had previously run for president of the Oglala Sioux tribe and twice been defeated. Several tribal governments elected by the tribes themselves issued statements distancing themselves from the independence declaration, with some saying they were watching the independent movement closely. [35][36] No elected tribal governments endorsed the declaration. The Lakota People made national news when NPR’s “Lost Children, Shattered Families” investigative story aired. [39] It exposed what many critics consider to be the “kidnapping” of Lakota children from their homes by the state of South Dakota’s Department of Social Services D. Lakota activists such as Madonna Thunder Hawk and Chase Iron Eyes, along with the Lakota Peoples Law Project, have alleged that Lakota grandmothers are illegally denied the right to foster their own grandchildren. They are currently working to redirect federal funding away from the state of South Dakota’s D. To new tribal foster care programs. This would be an historic shift away from the state’s traditional control over Lakota foster children. Another short film, Lakota in America, was produced by Square. The film features Genevieve Iron Lightning, a young Lakota dancer on the Cheyenne River Reservation, one of the poorest communities in the USA. Unemployment, addiction, alcoholism and suicide are all challenges for Lakota on the reservation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: “Lakota people” news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). The name Lakota comes from the Lakota autonym, Lakota “feeling affection, friendly, united, allied”. The early French historic documents did not distinguish a separate Teton division, instead grouping them with other “Sioux of the West, ” Santee and Yankton bands. The names Teton and Tetuwan come from the Lakota name thítuwa, the meaning of which is obscure. This term was used to refer to the Lakota by non-Lakota Sioux groups. Other derivations include: ti tanka, Tintonyanyan, Titon, Tintonha, Thintohas, Tinthenha, Tinton, Thuntotas, Tintones, Tintoner, Tintinhos, Ten-ton-ha, Thinthonha, Tinthonha, Tentouha, Tintonwans, Tindaw, Tinthow, Atintons, Anthontans, Atentons, Atintans, Atrutons, Titoba, Tetongues, Teton Sioux, Teeton, Ti toan, Teetwawn, Teetwans, Ti-t-wawn, Ti-twans, Titwan, Tetans, Tieton, and Teetonwan. Early French sources call the Lakota Sioux with an additional modifier, such as Sioux of the West, West Schious, Sioux des prairies, Sioux occidentaux, Sioux of the Meadows, Nadooessis of the Plains, Prairie Indians, Sioux of the Plain, Maskoutens-Nadouessians, Mascouteins Nadouessi, and Sioux nomades. Lakota Beaded Saddle Belt, made c. Today many of the tribes continue to officially call themselves Sioux. In the 19th and 20th centuries, this was the name which the US government applied to all Dakota/Lakota people. However, some tribes have formally or informally adopted traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is also known as the Siháu Oyáte (Brulé Nation), and the Oglala often use the name Oglála Lakóta Oyáte, rather than the English “Oglala Sioux Tribe” or OST. The alternate English spelling of Ogallala is deprecated, even though it is closer to the correct pronunciation. The Lakota have names for their own subdivisions. The Lakota also are Western of the three Sioux groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota. Akta Lakota Museum in Chamberlain, South Dakota. Today, one half of all enrolled Sioux live off the Reservation. Lakota reservations recognized by the U. Oglala (Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota and Nebraska). Sicangu (Rosebud Indian Reservation, South Dakota). Hunkpapa (Standing Rock Reservation North Dakota and South Dakota). Miniconjou (Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation, South Dakota). Itazipco (Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation, South Dakota). Siha Sapa (Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation, South Dakota). Ooinunpa (Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation, South Dakota). Some Lakota also live on other Sioux reservations in eastern South Dakota, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Santee Indian Reservation, in Nebraska. Crow Creek Indian Reservation in Central South Dakota. Yankton Indian Reservation in Central South Dakota. Flandreau Indian Reservation in Eastern South Dakota. Lake Traverse Indian Reservation in Northeastern South Dakota and Southeastern North Dakota. Lower Sioux Indian Reservation in Minnesota. Upper Sioux Indian Reservation in Minnesota. Shakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Reservation in Minnesota. Prairie Island Indian Reservation in Minnesota. In addition, several Lakota live on the Wood Mountain First Nation reserve, near Wood Mountain Regional Park in Saskatchewan, Canada. List of Lakota people. Native American tribes in Nebraska. The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass[12] and also commonly referred to as Custer’s Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which resulted in the defeat of U. Forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It took place on June 2526, 1876, along the Little Bighorn River in the Crow Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana Territory. The fight was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, who were led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall, and had been inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tatáka Íyotake). 7th Cavalry, a force of 700 men, suffered a major defeat while commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer (formerly a brevetted major general during the American Civil War). Five of the 7th Cavalry’s twelve companies were annihilated and Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew and a brother-in-law. Casualty count included 268 dead and 55 severely wounded (six died later from their wounds), [14]:244 including four Crow Indian scouts and at least two Arikara Indian scouts. Public response to the Great Sioux War varied in the immediate aftermath of the battle. Libbie Custer, Custer’s widow, soon worked to burnish her husband’s memory, and during the following decades Custer and his troops came to be considered iconic, even heroic, figures in American history. The battle, and Custer’s actions in particular, have been studied extensively by historians. [15] Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument honors those who fought on both sides. There are 574 federally recognized tribes living within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The US Census does not include Native Hawaiians, Samoans, or Chamorros, instead being included in the Census grouping of “Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander”. The ancestors of living Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago, possibly much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples, societies and cultures subsequently developed. European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, resulted in a precipitous decline in Native American population through introduced diseases, warfare, ethnic cleansing, and slavery. [3][4][5][6] After its formation, the United States, as part of its policy of settler colonialism, continued to wage war and perpetrated massacres[7] against many Native American peoples, removed them from their ancestral lands, and subjected them to one-sided treaties and to discriminatory government policies, later focused on forced assimilation, into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations. When the United States was created, established Native American tribes were generally considered semi-independent nations, as they generally lived in communities separate from white settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, and started treating them as “domestic dependent nations” subject to federal law. This law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty. For this reason, many (but not all) Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. Citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States who had not yet obtained it. This emptied the “Indians not taxed” category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, and extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people “subject to the jurisdiction” of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. California, Arizona and Oklahoma have the largest population of Native Americans in the United States. Most Native Americans live in rural areas or small-town areas. As most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the contact were written by Europeans. The item “RARE Orig Cabinet Photo Native American Sitting Bull’s Son 1880 Goff Dakota” is in sale since Tuesday, January 5, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Cultures & Ethnicities\Native American\ US\1800-1934\Photographic Images”. The seller is “dalebooks” and is located in Rochester, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Modified Item: No
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Culture: Native American: US
  • Provenance: Ownership History Not Available
  • Origin: Estate
  • Tribal Affiliation: Lakota

RARE Orig Cabinet Photo Native American Sitting Bull's Son 1880 Goff Dakota